CLAT Current Affairs and GK Practice Questions 2

Directions: read the following passage and answer the questions that follow

The Indian Railways, one of the largest railway networks globally, plays a crucial role in transportation for millions of people daily. Over the past two decades, the number of derailments, which account for the majority of accidents, has significantly decreased from around 350 per year in the early 2000s to 22 in 2021-22. However, recent incidents such as the one at Bahanaga Bazar railway station in Balasore emphasize the need for improved safety measures and infrastructure.

The tragic loss of lives in such accidents underscores the importance of ensuring the safety of railway passengers. In response to this incident, there have been demands for accountability from railway authorities and a focus on addressing systemic issues that may have contributed to the accident. Experts suggest various measures to prevent similar incidents, including enhancing signaling systems and investing in better technology.

Furthermore, comparisons with railway systems in other countries highlight the need for India to upgrade its infrastructure and safety measures to match global standards. This incident brings attention to the significance of ensuring the Indian Railways are safe and reliable for all users.

Primary reasons behind railway accidents include infrastructure defects, such as poor maintenance, outdated structures, and overcrowding. Human errors by railway staff, ranging from negligence to lack of training, also contribute to accidents. Signalling failures and the presence of unmanned and manned level crossings without adequate safety measures pose additional risks.

To mitigate accidents, the Indian Railways has implemented several measures. These include the establishment of the Rashtriya Rail Sanraksha Kosh (RRSK), a safety fund for critical assets, and technological upgrades such as improved coaches, fog navigation devices, and stronger tracks. Mechanization of track maintenance, ultrasonic flaw detection, and centralized interlocking systems also aim to enhance safety.

Various committees have recommended actions to ensure railway safety. These recommendations involve creating statutory safety authorities, separating railway budgets, improving human resource development, establishing independent accident investigation boards, and introducing performance-linked incentives for employees.

To further enhance safety, it is crucial to invest more in safety-related works, provide comprehensive training to railway staff, eliminate level crossings through construction of bridges or underpasses, adopt advanced technologies like anti-collision devices, and outsource non-core activities. Establishing a statutory railway safety authority, conducting regular safety audits, enhancing coordination and communication, and implementing confidential incident reporting systems are also recommended.

Additionally, a change in the management mindset is essential, moving away from fault-finding and punishment-oriented approaches to shared commitment and correction. The Indian Railways Management Service (IRMS) scheme should be evaluated to assess its impact on safety management and consider potential modifications.

In summary, the article highlights the importance of addressing safety issues in the Indian Railways and emphasizes the need for improved infrastructure, enhanced safety measures, and a shift towards a safety-centric approach at all levels of operation.

1. 
What is one of the primary reasons behind railway accidents mentioned in the passage?

2. 
Which committee recommended the creation of a non-lapsable Rashtriya Rail Sanraksha Kosh (RRSK) for safety works?

3. 
What technology is mentioned in the passage as a device to help loco pilots navigate in foggy conditions?

4. 
What is one of the suggested measures to enhance railway safety in India?

5. 
What attitudinal change is suggested in the passage regarding railway safety management?

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